1999 Published Proceeding Volumes

Defects in Silicon III, W.M. Bullis, W. Lin, P. Wagner, T. Abe and S. Kobayashi. PV 99-1, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $64.00 member - $77.00 nonmember.  Current state-of-the-art defects in silicon are detailed in this proceedings volume. As integrated circuits become more dense, crystalline and other defects in silicon wafers have a greater effect on the properties of the circuits. Bulk and surface defects, both grown-in and process-induced are considered.

Process Physics and Modeling in Semiconductor Technology (5th International Symposium), C.S. Murthy, G.R. Srinivasan and S.T. Dunham. PV 99-2, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $45.00 member - $54.00 nonmember.  This proceedings includes research activities, in the form of review articles and contributed papers, related to modeling and simulation of processes in semiconductor technology. It represents both a growing synergism and a forum for semiconductor process physicists, modelers, and technologists. Selected contributions focus on understanding the relevant phenomena which includes ion implantation, diffusion, and processes such as surface/interfacial, nucleation and growth.

Silicon-on-Insulator Technology and Devices IX, P.L.F. Hemment, S. Cristoloveanu, T.W. Houston, K. Izumi and H. Hovel. PV 99-3, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $65.00 member - $78.00 nonmember.  Highlighting this volume are reports of new and exciting advances in SOI device processing and manufacturing technologies. After three decades of research and development it now appears that SOI circuits will enter the commercial market. Papers focus on the challenges of manufacturing SOI circuits for volume production of high performance/low power applications.

State-of-the-Art Program on Compund Semiconductors XXX, C.R. Abernathy, A. Baca, D.N. Buckley, K.H. Chen, R. Kopf, and R.E. Sah. PV 99-4, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $52.00 member - $62.00 nonmember.  The most recent advances in compound semiconductors are addressed. Topics include materials growth, characterization processing, device fabrication and reliability, nanofabrication, contact formation, passivation, packaging, non-destructive testing, wireless technologies, and novel materials.

New Directions in Electroanalytical Chemistry II, J. Leddy, M.D. Porter, and P. Vanysek. PV 99-5, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $52.00 member - $62.00 nonmember.  This symposium was a forum to present the newest methods and technologies of electroanalytical chemistry. These proceedings cover discussions of instruments, methods, unusual media, materials and environments, spectroscopy, microscopy, separations, detection, data processing, and modeling.

Silicon Nitride and Silicon Dioxide Thin Insulating Films (5th International Symposium), K.B. Sundaram, M.J. Deen, W.D. Brown, R.E. Sah, E. Poindexter, D. Misra. PV 99-6, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $47.00 member - $56.00 nonmember.  Topics include: film preparation; film and film/substrate interface analyzing novel techniques; passivation charge transport and trapping; tunneling phenomena and dielectric breakdown; defects and impurities; electrical, chemical, physical, and optical properties; multilayer dielectric layers, stacks, and interfaces; plasma processing; and rapid thermal process of oxidation nitridation isolation techniques and radiation effects.

Low and High Dielectric Constant Materials: Materials Science, Processing and Reliability Issues (4th) and Thin Film Materials for Advanced Packing Technologies (2nd), R. Singh, H.S. Rathore, R. Thakur, S.S. Ang, M.J. Loboda and R.K. Ulrich. PV 99-7, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $54.00 member - $64.00 nonmember.  This combined volume contains papers from two symposia. The first section of the volume emphasizes all aspects of low and high dielectric materials in silicon and compound semiconductor circuits and devices. In addition to materials issues, special emphasis is given to process integration and manufacturability. The second section covers all aspects of thin film materials and processes used in advanced interconnection and packaging technologies for semiconductor devices.

Environmental Issues in the Electronics and Semiconductor Industries (2nd International Symposium), L. Mendicino and L. Simpson. PV 99-8, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $43.00 member - $52.00 nonmember.  The increasing public awareness of environmental issues, such as global warming, ozone depletion, and toxic pollutants, has had a profound effect on the process technologies used for electronic component manufacturing. The electronics and semiconductor industries have been exploring new chemistries and processes, as well as abatement and waste treatment technologies, to achieve more environmentally benign processes. The discussions of all of these issues are covered in this volume.

Electrochemical Processing in ULSI Fabrication and Semiconductor/Metal Deposition II, P.C. Andricacos, P.C. Searson, C. Reidsema-Simpson, P. Allongue, J.L. Stickney, and G.M. Oleszek. PV 99-9, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $62.00 member - $74.00 nonmember.  Developments in the rapidly evolving chip-interconnect technology, where electrochemical processes play a significant role, are discussed. The convergence of academic research in this and other areas of metal/semiconductor deposition with technology requirements, as posed by the electronics and other industries, is a requirement for the continued success of electrochemical processes and is a focal point of this volume.

Advances in Rapid Thermal Processing, F. Roozeboom, J.C. Gelpey, M.C. Ozturk, J. Nakos. PV 99-10, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $62.00 member - $74.00 nonmember.  Recent innovations in RTP equipment issues are covered in this volume, as well as processes and applications in the fabrication of advanced semiconductor and other devices. Topics include: ultra-thin gate dielectrics and MOS gate stacks; ultra-shallow junctions and contacts; epitaxial growth; equipment issues; and new applications of RTP.

Photovoltaics for the 21st Century, V.K. Kapur, R.D. McConnell, D. Carlson, G.P. Ceasar and A. Rohatgi. PV 99-11, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $39.00 member - $47.00 nonmember.  Recent scientific and technical developments made in photovoltaic (PV) technology have helped lower the cost of PV modules and the price of PV systems. PV technology is thus making an entry into a variety of commercial markets, and is likely to make significant contributions, globally, to the power generation industry. The papers in this volume cover such topics as: new devices and structures, device modeling, new materials and synthesis, optical designs, hybrid systems, and environmental issues.

Fullerenes Vol. 7: Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Physics of Fullerenes and Related Materials (Twelfth International Symposium), K.M. Kadish, P.V. Kamat, and D.M. Guldi. PV 99-12, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $95.00 member - $114.00 nonmember.  Topics include all aspects of fullerenes science and technology, with subsections on: electrochemistry, metallofullerenes, ESR, photoexcited states, gas phase/mass spectrometry, extraction/purification, theory, organic functionalization, technology/polymers, organometallics/structural, biochemical/pharmaceutical, surface/film studies, thermodynamics, diffraction studies and structural and solid-state physics, nonotubes/nanocarbons, and fullerene-based superconductors.

Solid-State Ionic Devices, E.D. Wachsman, M.-L. Liu, J.R. Akridge and N. Yamazoe. PV 99-13, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $65.00 member - $78.00 nonmember.  Solid-state electrochemical devices are becoming pervasive in our technologically driven lifestyles. A fundamental understanding of ionic transport and interfacial phenomena in ceramics is imperative to a wide variety of these devices, from solid oxide fuel cells and ceramic membranes to solid-state sensors and battery electrodes. This proceedings describes current advances in ion conducting ceramics and the design, fabrication, and performance of devices that utilize them.

Tutorials in Electrochemical Engineering-Mathematical Modeling, R.F. Savinell, A.C. West, J.M. Fenton, and J. Weidner. PV 99-14, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $39.00 member - $47.00 nonmember.  Modeling and simulation are important tools for developing an understanding of electrochemical processes and phenomena. The uses of these techniques often accelerate optimization and implementation of technology, as well as reduce development costs. This volume includes tutorial papers on mathematical techniques, solution algorithms, and approaches in simulating electrochemical phenomena and processes. All scales are addressed, including molecular, microscopic, macroscopic, and system levels.

Spectroscopic Tools for Analysis of Electrochemical Systems, F. Argoul, J. McBreen, D.A. Scherson, and A. Wieckowski. PV 99-15, Seattle, Washington, Spring 1999, $48.00 member - $58.00 nonmember.  This volume provides an interdisciplinary look at the application of spectroscopic methods for study of electrochemical interfacial phenomena. Topics of interest include in situ spectroscopies and scanning probe microscopies, e.g., FTIR, Raman, ellipsometry, AFM, STM, NMR; and synchrotron-based techniques, such as surface diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (EXFAS); and ex situ electron-based spectroscopies such as Auger electron, X-ray photo electron, and electron (ion) scattering. Of particular interest are illustrations of the use of these methods to the study of well-ordered systems, e.g., adsorbates and deposits on single-crystal surfaces, nonostructures, intermetallics, self-organizing systems, islands and defects. Theoretical aspects of interfacial systems are also discussed.

Anayltical and Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials, Devices, and Processes. B.O. Kolbesen, C. Claeys, P. Stallhofer, F. Tardif, J. L. Benton, P. Rai-Choudhury, T. J. Shaffner, D. K. Shroder, and M. Tajima. PV 99-16, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $62.00 member - $75.00 nonmember.  This combined volume contains materials from two symposia. The first section covers activities in the field of analytics and characterization of semiconductor materials and processes. Topics include: bulk impurities, defects, and stress; surface and thin films; and materials and process characterization and monitoring. The second section covers new techniques, as well as advances in routine analytical technology applied to semiconductor process development and manufacturing. Issues related to state-of-the-art IC production, such as time and cost measurements, measurement-induced device damage, technique modifications needed for submicron characterization, comparisons of techniques, optimum combinations of metrology, defect and yield correlation, and measurement needs for next generation manufacturing are discussed.

State-of-the-Art Program on Compound Semcionductors XXXI. D. N. Buckley, S. N. G. Chu, and F. Ren. PV 99-17, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $54.00 member - $65.00 nonmember.  Recent advances in compound semiconductor technologies are detailed. Topics discussed include: materials growth, characterization, processing, device fabrication, and reliability.

ULSI Process Integration. G. Bronner, C. L. Claeys, R. B. Fair. PV 99-18, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $54.00 member - $65.00 nonmember.  ULSI Process Integration reviews and discusses all aspects of process integration. In addition to full technologies and future trends, both front- and back-end integration issues are presented.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. M. Dokiya, and S. C. Singhal. PV 99-19, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $82.00 member - $98.00 nonmember.  Highlights include: recent developments related to solid oxide fuel cells based on zirconia or another oxide electrolyte; materials for cell components; fabrication methods for cell components and complete cells; cell design, electrochemical performance and modeling; stack and systems including studies; and field tests.

Carbonate Fuel Cell Technology V. K. Hemmes, G. Lindbergh, J. R. Selman, D. A. Shores, and I. Uchida. PV 99-20, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $58.00 member - $70.00 nonmember.  This comprehensive volume presents information on the status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology, various aspects of its commercialization, recent advances in MCFC technology, and results of MCFC related fundamental research. The focus is on cascaded generation systems, high power density performance, performance stability in 20,000h+ operation, and novel materials.

Chlori Alkali and Chlorate Technology: R. B. MacMullin Memorial Symposium. H. S. Burney, N. Furuya, F. Hine, and K. Ohta. PV 99-21, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $52.00 member - $62.00 nonmember.  Dedicated to the late R. B. MacMullin, this volume is devoted to a wide spectrum of research, development, engineering, business, and historical aspects of chlor-alkali and chlorate technology. Dr. MacMullin was a pioneer in industrial electrochemical engineering and an active member of The Electrochemical Society for over 60 years. He contributed considerably to the field of design and optimization of chlor-alkali electrolytic cells. Topics discussed include: advances in production methods; fundamental studies of process changes, cell design, performance optimization, energy reductions, or plant design; and improved technology, equipment, or materials.

Advanced Luminescent Materials and Quantum Confinement. S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Cahay, N. Koshida, J. P. Leburton, D. J. Lockwood, M. Meyyappan, and T. Sakamoto. PV 99-22, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $70.00 member - $84.00 nonmember.  Adressing recent developments in the area on nanoscale semiconductor, metallic, and organic structures, this volume emphasizes quantum effects and single electron storage in small-scale silicon and III-V compound devices. This text also covers fundamental issues in Luminescence Physics and Chemistry of new classes of phosphor and porus materials including both atomic and molecular structures.

Chemical Sensors IV. M. Aizawa, M. A. Butler, P. Vanysek, and N. Yamazoe. PV 99-23, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $78.00 member - $94.00 nonmember.  All aspects of chemical sensor research and development are addressed in this volume. Concentrating on the transduction from chemical species to physical effect, as well as sensor arrays, sensor systems and associated signal processing, and applications of chemical sensors. Also covered are mass and electron transfer, and interfacial and homogeneous kinetics.

Intercalation Compounds for Battery Materials. G. A. Nazri, T. Ohzuku, and M. Thackeray. PV 99-24, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $87.00 member - $104.00 nonmember.  This volume provides the latest innovations in electrode materials for advanced batteries. The physics and chemistry of intercalation compounds is emphasized along with the fundamentals of electrode materials design and optimization. Topics include: fundamental aspects of redox process and charge transfer in intercalation materials; synthesis, characterization, and materials engineering; electrochemical properties and cell performance characteristics; structure and reaction mechanism; chemical and electrochemical, and structural stability as a function of state of charge; electronic and magnetic properties of intercalation systems; and molecular simulation of intercalation compounds and theoretical modeling of electrochemical processes.

Lithium Batteries. R. A. Marsh, Z. Ogumi, J. Prakash, and S. Surampudi. PV 99-25, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $90.00 member - $108.00 nonmember.  Fundamental and applied aspects of primary lithium batteries (liquid and solid cathode) and secondary lithium batteries (lithium metal, lithium ion and lithium metal polymer, lithium ion polymer) are covered. Topics include: anode materials, cathode materials, electrolytes, separators, cell reaction mechanistic studies, overcharge/over discharge protection studies, novel electrode processing/cell manufacturing methods, performance and safety characteristics of cells and batteries, failure modes/mechanisms, and cell/battery modeling studies.

Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Saltwater Environments. P. M. Natishan, S. Ito, D. A. Shifler, and T. Tsuru. PV 99-26, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $52.00 member - $62.00 nonmember.  Addressing recent corrosion research in marine and other saltwater environments, this volume contains papers detailing both basic and applied research areas that advance the understanding of corrosion. Specific topics include: corrosion processes, mechanisms, corrosion sensor and detection techniques, and environmentally compliant methods of corrosion prevention or control in ocean and brackish waters.

Passivity and Localized Corrosion: International Symposium in Honor of Professor Norio Sato. R. G. Kelly, B. MacDougall, M. Seo, and H. Takahashi. PV 99-27, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $78.00 member - $94.00 nonmember.  The latest advances in passivity and localized corrosion are covered in this volume. Topics include: structure, composition, and thickness of passive films; optical, electronic, ionic, and mechanical properties of passive films; growth and breakdown processes of passive films, and repassivation process; noise analysis of precursor processes of localized corrosion; statistical and stochastic analyses of localized corrosion; kinetics, stability, and morphology of corrosion pits; and transport processes within pits and crevices.

Localized In Situ Methods for Investigating Electrochemical Interfaces. A. C. Hillier, M. Seo, and S. R. Taylor. PV 99-28, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $55.00 member - $66.00 nonmember.  Physical and chemical heterogeneities within electrode surfaces play a critical role in governing the behavior of local electrochemical processes. These processes range from corrosion and electrocrystallization to electrocatalysis and membrane-based separations. The ability to monitor and spatially resolve these local, dynamic electrochemical processes in situ will provide a new means to understand their origin and nature. This symposium is the first on this subject and introduces the most recent experimental and theoretical advances in scanning probe techniques and spatially resolved characterization.

Corrosion and Reliability of Electronic Materials and Devices. R. B. Comizzoli, R. P. Frankenthal, and J. D. Sinclair. PV 99-29, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $52.00 member - $62.00 nonmember.  Discussion on corrosion and other materials degradation processes that affect the reliability of electronic and optoelectronic devices and equipment are included. This volume also details studies of the mechanisms of degradation and failure and the effects of manufacturing processes and environmental conditions. Various intrinsic degradation processes are also discussed, including effects of diffusion, electromigration, and mechanical stress. Methods for evaluating devices and materials and for hardening them are also included.

Plasma Etching for Sub-Quarter Micron Devices. D. W. Hess, Y. Horiike, and G.S. Mathad. PV 99-30, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $64.00 member - $77.00 nonmember.  Fundamental and applied aspects of plasma etching processes for the fabrication of quarter and sub-quarter micron semiconductor devices are covered. Topics include: novel plasma sources and reactor designs, process and reactor modeling, high plasma density processes for thin film etching, plasma diagnostics and process control, and modeling of issues relating to plasma device damage.

Interconnect and Contact Metallization for ULSI. Y. Arita, G.S. Mathad, and H.R. Rathore. PV 99-31, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $58.00 member - $70.00 nonmember.  Papers focus on all aspects of materials, process, equipment and reliability of multilevel interconnections in sub 0.25 (m semiconductor devices and circuits for ULSI technologies. Focus areas include: copper as conductor material and its processes, low-k dielectric materials and processes, and reliability issues.

Diamond Materials VI. J. C. Angus, W. D. Brown, and A. Gicquel. PV 99-32, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $70.00 member - $84.00 nonmember.  Papers describing the latest developments in diamond and related materials from around the world have been gathered for this volume. It includes continuing coverage of the emerging field of electrochemistry of diamond materials, with papers about electrosynthesis on diamond materials, diamond electrodes for sensors, and electrochemical characterization of diamond electrodes. Other topics include: growth, characterization, properties, and applications of diamond materials.

Fundamental of Electrochemical Deposition and Dissolution. D. Landolt, M. Matlosz, and Y. Sato. PV 99-33, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $75.00 member - $90.00 nonmember.  Aspects of electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes, including structure and properties of electrochemically deposited metals, alloys, semiconductors, conducting polymers, metal oxides, and superconductors are detailed in this volume. Specific topics include: nucleation and growth, kinetics and mechanisms, structure and physical properties, mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of deposition and dissolution processes, and processing and tooling aspects of micro-engineered structures.

Electrochemical Technology Applications in Electronics III. C. Madore, T. Osaka, L. T. Romankiw, and Y. Yamazaki. PV 99-34, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $70.00 member - $84.00 nonmember.  Topics presented are related to theory and practice of electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering as applied in the electronics industry to fabrication, operation, and protection of electronic devices, and components, including computers, storage products, office machines, consumer products, telephony, wireless communication, photography, MEMS, and automotive applications.

Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology, and Applications V. C. E. Hunt, H. Baumgart, T. Abe, and U. Goesele. PV 99-35, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $79.00 member - $95.00 nonmember.  Bonding of whole wafer semiconductors is examined. Different techniques include fusion, anodic, eutectic, thermal, and UHV bonding. Surface science of bonding, both theory and experimental, as well as applications to SOI, microstructures, sensors, photonics, and power electronics are demonstrated. Considerable emphasis is given to expanding the applicability of wafer bonding to greater usage, both electronic and non-electronic.

Cleaning Technology in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing VI. T. Hattori, R. E. Novak and J. Ruzyllo. PV 99-36, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $85.00 member - $102.00 nonmember.  Papers contained in this volume cover a broad range of topics related to the cleaning of silicon surfaces in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. In particular, various aspects of surface contaminants in silicon processing, dry and wet cleaning chemistries, as well as silicon surface termination are considered. Moreover, application specific cleaning methods, post-CMP cleaning technology, and cleaning in integrated processes are discussed.

Chemical Mechanical Polishing in IC Device Manufacturing III. Y. A. Arimoto, R. L. Opila, C. Reidsema Simpson, K. B. Sundaram, I. Ali, and Y. Homma. PV 99-37, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $76.00 member - $91.00 nonmember.  This proceedings volume addresses the fundamentals of chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and its application in Inter Layer Dielectrics (ILD) polishing, metal polishing, and trench and mesa isolation. Also addressed are: post-CMP cleaning, consumable characterization, polish end point detection, CMP process integration, and maufacturability issues with this emerging technology.

High Temerature Corrosion and Materials Chemistry: Per Kofstad Memorial Symposium. P. Y. Hou, T. Maruyama, M. J. McNallan, T. Narita, E. J. Opila, and D. A. Shores. PV 99-38, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $79.00 member - $95.00 nonmember.  This volume is dedicated to the memory of Per Kofstad, a leader in the fields of high temperature corrosion and oxide defect chemistry. This volume focuses on defect chemistry of metal oxides pertaining to oxidation reactions, diffusion and transport-related phenomena in oxidation and corrosion reactions, hot-corrosion phenomena, effects of hydrogen and water vapor on oxidation and corrosion mechanisms, and vaporization phenomena.

Environmental Aspects of Electrochemical Technology. K. Ota and E. J. Rudd. PV 99-39, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $54.00 member - $65.00 nonmember.  There is a growing concern regarding the environment and the need to conserve materials and resources. This volume contains the results of ongoing research and development programs that address this concern, including pollution prevention, process optimization, and the recovery and re-use of chemicals and materials.

Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials. C. R. Ronda, K. C. Mishra, L. Shea, A. Srivastava and H. Yamamoto.PV 99-40, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $62.00 member - $74.00 nonmember.  Various aspects of luminescence are covered in this volume including both inorganic and organic solids. Specific topics covered include: luminescent materials for lamp applications, display and VUV phosphors, electroluminescent phosphors, multiphoton processes, and laser materials.

Molten Salts XII. H. C. De Long, S. Deki, G. R. Stafford, and P. C. Trulove. PV 99-41, Honolulu, Hawaii, Fall 1999, $82.00 member - $98.00 nonmember.  Technology opportunities related to molten salt technologies are reviewed in this volume. Topics include: electrochemical power, homogeneous reactions, electrodeposition, separations, molten salt promoted corrosion phenomena, solute and solvent structural investigations, and new innovative molten salt mixtures.

Passivity of Metals and Semiconductors VIII , M. B. Ives, B. R. MacDougall, J. A. Bardwell, PV 99-42, Alberta, Canada, May 1999, $80.00 member - $96 nonmember.  As a comprehensive "state-of-the-art" summary, this volume covers the passivity phenomena as studied and exploited in both metals and semiconductor materials, organized into three sections: 1. The Structure of Passive Films, 2. Passivity Breakdown, and 3. Passivity Applications. A particular feature of this volume is the inclusion of closely verbatim discussions, which followed the individual presentations, further providing the reader with insight into the consequences and possible shortcomings of the individual papers. As such, this book should serve as an important resource for those contemplating initiating new research in the fascinating classical phenomenon of passivity.

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