Short Course #3 Basics of Impedance Spectroscopy Mark E. Orazem and Pankaj Agarwal, Instructors
This course is intended for chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers with an interest in applying electrochemical impedance techniques to study a broad variety of electrochemical processes. The course is best suited for an attendee who has some experience with making impedance measurements and wants to develop a deeper understanding of the technique. The attendee will develop a basic understanding of the technique, the sources of errors in impedance measurements, the manner in which experiments can be optimized to reduce these errors, and the use of regression to interpret measurements in terms of meaningful physical properties. The topics to be covered include:
the motivation for using impedance spectroscopy advantages as compared to other transient techniques and the conditions under which its use is ideally suited,
the type of information that can be extracted from impedance measurements, including the limitations of the technique,
proper selection of experimental parameters,
the types of errors expected in impedance measurements, and methods to assess the importance of these errors and to reduce their magnitude,
use of the Kramers-Kronig relations as a tool for evaluating impedance data,
use of regression techniques and appropriate selection of weighting strategies,
application of electrical circuit analogues,
development of mathematical models appropriate for interpretation of impedance spectra in terms of physical properties, and
applications to different systems including corrosion, fuel cells, characterization of electronic materials, transport through membranes such as skin.
About the Instructors
Mark E. Orazem is a recognized expert on impedance spectroscopy. He has offered his short course on the topic at ECS meetings eight times since 2000. His course has also been delivered to the San Francisco Bay Area and Twin Cities Sections.
Orazem organized the sixth International Symposium on Impedance Spectroscopy, held in May 2004, and he is the guest editor of a special issue of Electrochimica Acta dedicated to this topic. He has consulted with companies on the use of impedance spectroscopy. His group has developed the measurement model approach for statistical analysis of impedance spectroscopy. With Bernard Tribollet of the CNRS in Paris, he is writing a textbook on the subject.
Orazem is the faculty coordinator for a broad-ranging fuel cell research effort at the University of Florida. He is vice president of the International Society of Electrochemistry and Associate Editor of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. He has published over 100 refereed articles and chapters in books and was recognized as a University of Florida Research Foundation Professor (1999-2002), and the Charles A. Stokes Professor of Chemical Engineering (2000-2003).
Pankaj Agarwal is the founder and Managing Director of Panitek GmbH. Before starting Panitek, he served as the Managing Director of Fideris Test Solutions GmbH, a fully owned subsidiary of Fideris Inc., a leading provider of Fuel Cell testing solutions. He has extensive experience in the development of electrochemical instrumentation and in the application of electrochemical techniques. Dr. Agarwal began his career as a research scientist for Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and then moved to EcoChemie BV, a subsidiary of Metrohm AG. He has a degree in chemical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India; an MBA from the Rotterdam School of Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. The author of over 25 papers, Dr. Agarwal has helped energy, alternative power, and new material development organizations implement advanced diagnostic solutions.