InterfaceThe following are the updated guidelines for submitting student chapter updates for publication in Interface.

ECS encourages submissions of news from student chapters. Therefore, we try to keep the rules to a minimum. However, some guidance will help in preparing the material.

Point of View: Compose your submission in third person.

Timeliness: Interface is published every three months – spring, summer, fall, and winter. It is best that your chapter update includes information about events, initiatives, accomplishments, etc., from within the last three to six months.

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The content below was published in the winter 2017 edition of Interface.

Winter 2017 InterfaceEach year ECS gives up to five Summer Fellowships to assist students in continuing their graduate work during the summer months in a field of interest to the Society.

Congratulations to the four Summer Fellowship recipients for 2017. The Society thanks the Summer Fellowship Committee for their work in reviewing the applications and selecting four excellent recipients.

2017 Edward G. Weston Summer Research Fellowship

Mapping Nanoscale Ion Transport
Lushan Zhou

Transport of ions at small length scales plays critical roles in almost all physical and biophysical processes. Investigation of local ion transport properties requires tools for direct visualization of spatially distributed ions at interfaces. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM), a scanned nanoscale pipette, allows high resolution non-contact topography
imaging of samples bathed in electrolyte and therefore is well-suited for nanoscale ion transport studies. Read more.

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Below is an excerpt from an article published in the winter 2017 edition of Interface.

By: Durga Misra, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Winter 2017 InterfaceThe explosive progress of information technology and 5th generation communication technology enables the introduction of the Internet of Things, where the network of physical objects—devices, vehicles, and buildings embedded with sensors, electronics, software, and network connectivity—permits these physical objects to collect and exchange data. The use of dielectric materials in sensors for a multitude of applications such as self-driving cars has made the dielectric science and technology research even more significant than before.

More than seventy years ago, in 1945, it all started with establishing the Electric Insulation Division in ECS to offer an interdisciplinary forum to discuss the science of the materials used for electrical insulation in power transmission. With the advancement of technology, when integrated circuits became popular, the division became the Dielectrics and Insulation Division in 1965. In 1990, it became the Dielectric Science and Technology Division due to extensive growth in electronic manufacturing technology. Today, the division still provides a strong interdisciplinary research environment.

In this issue of Interface we have focused on some of the current topics that are an integral part of current and future technologies.

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Tech Highlights

ECS journalsTech Highlights was prepared by David Enos and Mike Kelly of Sandia National Laboratories, Colm Glynn and David McNulty of University College Cork, Ireland, Zenghe Liu of Verily Life Science, and Donald Pile of Rolled-Ribbon Battery Company. This article was originally published in the fall 2017 issue of Interface. Read the full article.

The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in Full Lithium-Ion Cells

In recent years, high voltage cathode materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to the high energy densities that they offer. However, side reactions with conventional electrolytes resulting in electrolyte decomposition need to be overcome to make the use of these materials viable for commercial cells. Consequently, various electrolyte additives have been the subject of much research. A team led by researchers from Uppsala University has investigated the effect of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as an electrolyte additive in full Li-ion cells consisting of a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Read the full paper.

From: B. Aktekin, R. Younesi, W. Zipprich et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, A942 (2017).

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By: John Staser, division vice chair and Assistant Professor at Ohio University

InterfaceAs vice chair of the Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division, it is with great pleasure that I introduce the summer 2017 edition of Interface.

The authors of the articles you are about to read all worked tirelessly, and we owe them acknowledgement and significant gratitude for putting this issue together. Without their contributions, we would not be able to deliver the consistent quality of content that you expect in Interface.

We as a division hope to highlight the diverse activities of our members.

In the following pages you will find articles authored by industrial and academic members, with foci ranging from environmental applications to mathematical modeling to large-scale industrial production of metals. Such breadth is evidence that our division’s activities, as has been the case in the past, are ever evolving.

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Tech Highlights

ECS journalsTech Highlights was prepared by David Enos, Mara Schindelholz, and Mike Kelly of Sandia National Laboratories, Colm Glynn and David McNulty of University College Cork, Ireland, and Donald Pile of Rolled-Ribbon Battery Company. This article was originally published in Interface. Read the original article.

Spray Drying-Assisted Synthesis of Li3VO4/C/CNTs Composites for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

Published in the “Focus Issue of Selected Papers from IMLB 2016 with Invited Papers Celebrating 25 Years of Lithium Ion Batteries.” Graphite-based materials continue to be the most commonly used anode materials in commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the practical application of graphite anodes in largescale LIBs may be hindered by safety issues arising from Li dendrite formation on the surface of the anode when cycling at fast rates. Read the full paper.

From: Yang Yang, Jiaqi Li, Dingqiong Chen, and Jinbao Zhao, J. Electrochem. Soc., 164, A6001 (2017).

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Websites of Note

By: Alice H. Suroviec, Berry College

Websites of NoteWolfram|Alpha

Wolfram|Alpha is a computational search engine that uses an extensive collection of built-in data and algorithms to answer computation questions using a web-browser interface. It is a free website designed by the programmers behind the Mathematica software package.
www.wolframalpha.com

NREL MatDB

NRELMatDB is a computational materials database that primarily contains information on materials for renewable energy applications such as photovoltaic materials, and materials for photo-electrochemical water splitting. This website is a growing collection of computed properties of stoichiometric and fully ordered materials. It is a very useful database for those needing comparative data.
NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
www.materials.nrel.gov

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Tech Highlights

Tech HighlightsECS journals was prepared by Colm Glynn and David McNulty of University College Cork, Ireland, David Enos of Sandia National Laboratories, Zenghe Liu of Verily Life Science, and Donald Pile of Rolled-Ribbon Battery Company. Each article highlighted here is available free online.


Performance of Three-Dimensional LiMn2O4/Carbon Composite Cathodes Prepared Via Sol-Gel Impregnation

With the ever advancing improvements in electronics and display technologies, it is crucial that Li-ion batteries are able to rise to the challenge of powering next generation consumer electronics. Consequently, the development of electrode materials for Li-ion batteries that are capable of delivering high capacities with stable capacity retention is of the utmost importance. Researchers from the University of Bremen have investigated the fabrication of 3D composite cathodes consisting of LiMn2O4 particles deposited directly onto an electrically conductive matrix of carbon fibres via sol-gel impregnation. The electrochemical performance of the composite cathodes was evaluated as a function of the number of sol impregnation steps. Through systematic galvanostatic cycling, the researchers determined that high capacity cathodes could be obtained from increased filling of the carbon matrix with the LMO sol. A cathode sample after four filling cycles demonstrated a discharge capacity of 132mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, corresponding to ~89% of the theoretical capacity of LiMn2O4.

Additionally, as a proof-of-concept, LMO cathodes were cycled against Lithium Titanate (LTO) anodes in a solid state battery (SSB) setup. The evaluation of these cells offers valuable insight for future SSB applications.

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By: Petr Vanýsek

Edward AchesonThe discovery of an electric arc can be tied to the use of an electrochemical energy source. Sir Humphry Davy described in 1800 an electric discharge using electrochemical cells1 that produced what we would call a spark, rather than an arc. However, in 1808, using an electrochemical battery containing 2000 plates of copper and zinc, he demonstrated an electric arc 8cm long. Davy is also credited with naming the phenomenon an arc (Fig. 1). An electric arc was also discovered independently in 1802 by Russian physicist Vasily Petrov, who also proposed various possible applications including arc welding. There was a long gap between the discovery of the electric arc and putting it to use.

Electrochemical cells were not a practical source to supply a sustained high current for an electric arc. A useful application of this low voltage and high current arc discharge became possible only once mechanical generators were constructed. Charles Francis Brush developed a dynamo, an electric generator, in 1878, that was able to supply electricity for his design of arc lights. Those were deployed first in Philadelphia and by 1881 a number of cities had electric arc public lights. Once that happened, the application and new discoveries for the use of the electric arc followed. Electric arc for illumination was certainly in the forefront. First, electric light extended greatly the human activities into the night and second, public street electric lights, attracting masses of spectators, were the source of admiration, inspiration, and no doubt, more invention.

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By: Roque Calvo, ECS Executive Director

ECS at 115In April 1902, upon the conclusion of the Society’s first meeting in Philadelphia, the Society’s first president wrote the column below, which was printed in the Society’s first publication, explaining the rationale to form the American Electrochemical Society.

Evidence accumulates on every hand that the analogue of the specialist in science is the society which specializes. Whether for good or ill, whether some of its influences are narrowing in some directions or not, the society which specializes is the necessary corollary of the scientific specialist; the latter came perforce into existence, has made the whole world his debtor, and is recognized as the present factor for progress; the former is coming perforce into existence, will soon make the world its immeasurable debtor, and will be a wonderfully potent factor in future scientific progress.

Such is the force, the necessary condition, which has brought into existence The American Electrochemical Society. … Its functions should be those of bringing electrochemists into personal contact with each other; of disseminating among them all the information known to, and which can be spared by, their co-workers; to stimulate original thought in these lines by
mutual interchange of experience, and by papers and discussions; to stimulate electrochemical work all over the world. …

Such a society … being, therefore, a necessity, a pressing need, its formation was inevitable. It came. … The results have justified the insight of the projectors of the society, the first meeting has been an enthusiastic success, the organization now exists, its future is one of assured usefulness. With confidence we stand out to sea.

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