The ECS Lecture: Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Modification and Characterizations
by Sumio Iijima
Unique properties of CNTs depend on their structures and morphologies, and well-controlled specimens (diameter, length, quantity, chirality, structural perfection, impurity, homogeneity) will be needed for precise and reliable experiments. It is also required for their industrial applications. Regarding the production of well-controlled single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), two important breakthroughs in SWCNT growth were made in Prof. Ijima’s group at AIST. One is a direct injection pyrolytic synthesis (DIPS) method, which can provide controlled tube diameters and extremely high purity tubes on the industrial scale production. Some industrial applications of the product are for transparent and flexible conductive films, thin film transistors, SWCNT threads and sheets. Another is the “Super-Growth” of SWCNTs, which grow vertically on various substrates including metal foils of “A4 size.” Thus produced, substantially cheap SWCNTs are used for high power density capacitors. The importance of characterization of nanostructured materials will be demonstrated by showing the latest results of atomic structures of CNTs and their related structures, which have been revealed by an ultra-high resolution TEM with a spherical aberration corrector. Individual carbon atoms, local atomic defects of SWCNTs, and individual fullerene molecules were directly recorded. Dynamic behaviors of those atoms and defects as well as doped metal atoms and organic molecules inside the tubes are of interest in terms of sophisticated device application of CNTs.
Sumio Iijima currently holds three professional titles:Professor, Meijo University, Nagoya since 1999; Director, Research Center for Advanced Carbon Materials, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba since 2002; and Special Research Fellow of NEC, Nagoya, Japan. He graduated from the University of Electro-Communication in Tokyo in 1963, and received his PhD degree in physics from Tohoku University in 1969. He worked in Prof. J. M. Cowley’s group at Arizona State University, first as a postdoctoral fellow from 1970 to 1976, and then as a senior research associate until 1982. During this period he worked briefly at Cambridge University as a visiting scholar in 1979. At Arizona he devoted much time to developing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), which is the basis of the current HRTEM method. His work was recognized with the Eugene Warren Diffraction Physics Award from the American Crystallography Association in 1976.
Prof. Iijima returned to Japan in 1982 to work in the Ultra-Fine Particles Project (JST, Japanese government research agency) for 5 years and won the Nishina Memorial Award (for the discovery of structural instability of gold clusters, 1985). He joined the NEC Fundamental Research Laboratories in Tsukuba as a research fellow in 1987. In 1991, Prof. Iijima discovered carbon nanotubes and elucidated that carbon nanotubes are composed of concentric graphene tubes and have the helical atomic arrangement. In 1993, Iijima showed that single-wall nanotubes could be synthesized by a dc arc-discharge of carbon with co-existing metal catalysts. His discovery of carbon nanotubes opened up a new era of nanoscience and nanotechnology and attracted many researchers in a wide range of fields from academia to industry.
Some of Prof. Iijima’s awards are as follows: the Agilent Europhysics Prize (2001), the J. C. McGroddy Prize, APS (2002), the Japan Academy Award and Imperial Award (2002), Person of Cultural Merits, Japanese government (2003), and the ACS Medal of Achievement in Carbon Science and Technology (2004). He also received the Gregori Aminoff Prize in Crystallography (Royal Swedish Academy of Science, 2007), the Fujiwara Award (2007), and the Balzan Prize for Nanoscience (Italy-Switzerland, 2007). He is a fellow of APS (2001) and received the Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Antwerp (2002), EPF Lausanne (2003), and Peking University (2005). In 2007, he was elected as the foreign associate of the National Academy of Science. Professor Iijima is also the 2008 recipient of the Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures Division Richard E. Smalley Research Award.
The 2008 Vittorio de Nora Award Lecture: From nW to TW
by John Newman
“From nW to TW” will cover the derivations of the Onsager reciprocal relations for multicomponent diffusion; the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide and water to carbon monoxide and hydrogen; and the production of liquid fuels from renewable energy.
John Newman earned his BS in chemical engineering in 1960 from Northwestern University. While at Northwestern University, he was an engineering co-op student at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he worked on diffusion in ion exchangers and solvent extraction. Prof. Newman entered the University of California, Berkeley for graduate study, obtaining his master’s degree in 1962, on current distribution in porous electrodes, under the guidance of Professor Charles Tobias. In 1963 he obtained his doctorate, on steady laminar flow past a circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers. While a PhD student, he contributed to the preparation of major portions of the English edition of Levich’s book, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, published in 1962.
Shortly after receiving his doctorate, Newman joined the faculty at UC Berkeley and became a full professor in 1970, where he is still an active member. He had won the Young Author’s Prize for his work on current distribution on a rotating disk below the limiting current. In 1969, Dr. Newman again won the Young Author’s Prize for his work with his student William Parrish on modeling channel electrochemical flow cells. In 1985, he received the David C. Grahame Award of the ECS Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division. Dr. Newman’s book, Electrochemical Systems, published in 1973, with a second printing in 1991, and a third in 2004 (with coauthor Karen E. Thomas-Alyea), is used throughout the world as a monograph and graduate text in electrochemical engineering. He is an ECS Fellow and his other awards include the Henry B. Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1990 and the Olin Palladium Medal in 1991. He was associate editor for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society for 10 years starting in 1990.
In addition to his numerous publications, reviews, and lectures, Prof. Newman has made many contributions to electrochemical technology through his consulting work. He is also a Faculty Senior Scientist and Principal Investigator in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where he is in charge of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies program. Lithium/polymer batteries and polymer-electrolyte fuel cells have been highlights of recent work. In 2002, he spent a semester as the Onsager Professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, and, in 1999, was elected to the National Academy of Engineering.
2008 Vittorio de Nora Award Reception—All meeting registrants are invited to attend the award reception honoring John Newman, recipient of the 2008 Vittorio de Nora Award at 1800-1845h, in the Cowboy Artists Room on the Second Floor of the Hyatt.